Sunday, 5 March 2017

Growth and Development

We are aware of the fact that human life begins from a single fertilized cell. Regular and constant interaction with the environment results in the growth and development of innate capacities, abilities and potentialities of a child. Let’s understand first what the growth and the development mean.

Child Development: Growth and Development


It means the growth of different parts of human body. It refers to quantitative changes in size which include physical changes in height, weight, size, internal organs, etc. The physical growth affects our behavior and vice versa. Therefore, in the simplest form, growth can be defined as body, shape and growth in weight; it also includes growth of muscles. For example, during infancy and childhood, the body of a person steadily becomes larger, taller and heavier. It is “growth”.


It refers to the various qualitative changes which take place simultaneously with quantitative changes of growth, for example, social changes, emotional changes, etc. Development may be defined as a “progressive” series of “orderly and coherent” changes. The term progressive denotes that changes are directional; they lead forward rather than backward. Terms such as orderly and coherent suggest that there is a definite relationship between the changes taking place and those that precede or will follow them.

Thus, development represents changes in an organism from its origin to its death. It is the series of overall changes in an individual due to the emergence of modified structures and functions that are the outcome of the interaction and exchange between the organism and its environment.

Difference between growth and development:

It is used in purely physical sense. Changes in the quantitative aspects come under the domain of growth. For example, an increase in size, length, height, and weight.
It indicates changes in the quality or character rather than in quantitative aspects.
The changes produced by growth are the subject of measurement. They may be quantified and are observable.
It brings qualitative changes which are difficult to be measured. They are assessed through keen observation.
Growth may or may not bring development. A child may grow in terms of weight but this growth may or may not bring any functional improvement (qualitative changes or development)
Development is also possible without growth as we have seen in the cases of some children that they do not gain in terms of height, weight, or size, but they do experience functional improvement or development.
Growth is one of the parts of development process.
Development is a wider and comprehensive term. It refers to overall changes in individual. Growth is one of its parts.
Growth does not continue throughout life. It stops when maturity has been attained.
Development is a continuous process. It goes from the womb to tomb. It does not end with the attainment of maturity.

Stages of growth and development

Name of stages
Period and Approximate Age
1.       Pre-natal (pre-birth) Stage
From conception to birth
2.      Stage of Infancy
From birth to two years
3.      Childhood Stage

(a)  Early Childhood
(b)  Later Childhood
From 3rd to 12 years or up to the onset of puberty.
From 3rd to 5 years
From 6 to 12 years
4.      Adolescent Stage
From the onset of puberty to the age of maturity (generally, 12-19 years)
5.      Adulthood
From 20 years and beyond.

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What is “Data Collection”?

What is “Data Collection”?

Data Collection

Data collection is a process of gathering information. It is an important component in any kind of research. The process of data collection brings forth various pool of information and helps the researchers to formulate a notion for a research. Depending on the nature of information to be gathered, different instruments are administered for different data collection process.

Saturday, 4 March 2017

Lev. S. Vygotsky: Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)

The Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) is the concept given by the Russian psychologist, Lev. S. Vygotsky (1896-1934). Vygotsky was famous for his theory of Socio-Cultural Development. According to him, development takes place primarily through interaction with one’s culture.

Lev. S. Vygotsky (1896-1934)
Lev.S. Vygotsky

In a layman’s term, ZPD is defined as the difference between what a learner can do without help and what he/she can do with help or assistance. It is an area of learning that takes place when a student is given assistance (also called Scaffolding) by a teacher or 
more skilled peer. In other words, the ZPD is the gap between the actual competence level and the potential development level.

Actual competence refers to what problem level a student or an individual is able to solve independently, whereas potential development level refers to what problem level a student or an individual could solve with the help of a teacher.

Developmental Stages: Erik Erikson

Erik Erikson
Erik Erikson

Developmental Stages:

Gender is one very important aspect of our personality. But personality is much more than our notions of being male or female together with related attitudes and interests. It includes all of the abilities, predispositions, habits, and other qualities that make each of us different from every other person.

Fundamentals of Statistics

Sir Arthur Lyon Bowley
Sir Arthur Lyon Bowley


In the simplest form, Statistics is defined as a numerical representation of information. According to a renowned English statistician Sir Arthur Lyon Bowley, statistics refers to numerical statements of facts in any area of inquiry.

Sir Arthur Lyon Bowley, also an economist, worked on economic statistics and pioneered the use of sampling techniques in social surveys.

Statistics is also seen a branch of mathematics which deals with enumeration data (one type of numerical data). Statistics is used as a tool in data analysis of a research; it is used to gather, organize, analyze, and interpret information gathered.

Let’s first understand what the data is. Data refers to a set or a bundle of information which is collected in order to conduct a research. Data is of two types: Numerical, and Non-numerical.

The data that can be counted is termed as numerical data; it deals with numbers and calculation, whereas non-numerical data deals with information which cannot be counted rather it is inferred or assumed.

Though both types of data (numerical as well as non-numerical) are information, the role of statistics is confined to “numerical data” only.

Numerical data is of two types—enumeration data, and metric data. Enumeration data refers to information which can be counted, for example, class intervals, frequencies, etc. Metric data is based on measurement; it needs unit specification in order to make sense of data.

Branch of Statistics:

Descriptive and Inferential Statistics

There are two major branches of statistics—“Descriptive Statistics”, and “Inferential Statistics”.

Descriptive Statistics

It describes certain characteristics of a group of data. It has to be precise (precise means brief and exact). It limits generalization to the particular group of individuals observed. Hence, no conclusions are extended beyond this group, and any similarity to those outside the group cannot be assumed. The data describe one group and that group only.

Inferential Statistics

It is related to the estimation or prediction based on certain evidence. It always involves the process of sampling and the selection of a small group. This small group is assumed to be related to the population from which it has been taken. The small group is known as the sample, and the large group is the population. Inferential Statistics allows the research to draw conclusions about populations based on observations of samples.

Following are the two important goals of inferential statistics:

·         The first goal is to determine what might be happening in a population based on a sample of the population.
·         And the second goal is to determine what might happen in future.
Thus, inferential statistics are to estimate and/or to predict. In order to use inferential statistics, only a sample of the population is required.

Organization of Data:

Ordered Array

It refers to the data (a set of information) which is arranged in descending order, for example, 90, 80, 75, 68, 60. The Ordered Array, also known as Set, provides a more convenient arrangement. The highest score is 90 and lowest score is 60 are easily identified. In this way, the range (the difference between the highest and the lowest scores, plus one) can be easily determined.

Grouped Data

The data which can be presented in the form of class interval and frequency is known as the Grouped Data. In this way of presentation, the data are often more clearly presented. Data can be presented in frequency table with different class intervals, depending on the number and range of the scores. There is no rule that rigidly determines the proper score interval. However, intervals of 10 are frequently used. 

Scope of Educational Psychology

Scope of Educational Psychology:

There are three aspects of education that concern the educational psychologists (those who are experts in the field of educational psychology). These are:
1.      Learner
2.      Learning Process
3.      Learning Situation


Learner means the children or students collectively comprise the classroom group. The learner is the central theme in educational psychology. What happens in the classroom can be explained in terms of personalities, developmental stages, adjustment, and psycho-social problems of students, individual differences in psycho-motor abilities, and cognitive ability.

Learning Process: 

What goes on when people learn is terms as “learning process”. The teacher teaches and the children may learn. Sometimes, the teacher teaches a subject but the children learn something else. Sometimes, the teacher may not teach something, but the children may learn it. The educational psychologies is interest in what happens when a child learns, why he learns what teachers want him to learn, and why he learns what teachers do not want him to learn.

Learning Situation: 

It refers to those factors or conditions that affect the learner and the learning process. For example, classroom settings, attitude and behavior of the teacher, emotional climate of the school, and so on are some of the significant factors that affect the learner and the learning process. 

Aims of Educational Psychology [Click Here]

What is Educational Research?

Educational Research:

In order to understand educational research, we have to first look at what a research is. A research is “planned”, “systematic”, and “rigorous” activity which is carried out to make known whatever is unknown. A research activity is also undertaken to verify whatever is known.
Planned refers to thinking about something or preparing a roadmap prior to carrying out a research; systematic means a logical order; and rigorous refers to pain-taking exercise which requires certain kind of competence, knowledge base and specific skills.
According to Best and Kahn, a research is directed towards the solution of a problem. It may attempt to answer a question or to determine the relation between two or more variable. Research involves gathering new data from primary sources or using existing data for a new purpose.
Educational Research
What is Educational Research?
When a research is concerned with human efforts towards solving the problems related to educational sphere in a society is termed as “educational research”. Thus, educational research refers to a systematic attempt to gain a better understanding of the educational process, generally with a view to improving its efficiency.
The main concerns of educational research are to understand, explain, predict, and control human behavior in individual and social situations so that events or situations can be improved further.

Need for Educational Research:

Educational research (or research in the field of education) is vital for providing helpful and dependable knowledge through which the process of education can be made more effective. As we know that education depends on amount of knowledge, there is a need to add new knowledge which has to be scientific, to enrich and improve education with different dimensions.
Research in education helps in clarifying and reinterpreting existing knowledge. The discipline of education finds its roots in philosophy, psychology and sociology. It is through an intensive process of scientific inquiry about the philosophical, psychological and sociological impact on various aspects of education that sound educational theories can be established. Therefore, there is a need for educational research because of changing conception of education.

Summary of general kinds of research: 

What are the Different Types of Research?

Types of Research:

Generally, research is classified into the following categories based on the objectives the researcher intends to accomplish.

Basic or Fundamental Research:  

Basic research is aimed at generating fundamental knowledge and theoretical understanding about basic human and other natural processes. The purpose of basic or fundamental research is generation of new knowledge for the sake of knowledge. It is not directed towards the solution of immediate practical problems. Basic research is usually conducted by using the most rigorous research methods (e.g., experimental) under tightly controlled laboratory conditions.
Fundamental Research

Objectives of Educational Research

Objectives of Educational Research:

There are various objectives of Educational Research. These are the following:

Educational Objectives


It is focused on describing the nature of something that previously was unknown; it is also used when the researcher tries to understand the specifics of some phenomenon or some situation to develop tentative hypotheses or generalization about it.


It attempting to learn about and generate ideas about phenomena) is especially important in the early phases of research because researchers must generate ideas about phenomena before additional research can progress.


It refers to attempting to describe the characteristics of a phenomenon. Description is one of the most basic activities in research. It might simply involve observing a phenomenon and recording what one sees.


It attempts to show how and why a phenomenon operates as it does.


It is prediction or attempting to predict or forecast a phenomenon. A researcher is able to make a prediction when certain information that is known in advance can be used to determine what will happen at a later point in time. Sometimes predictions can also be made from research studies in which the primary focus is on explanation. That is, when researchers determine cause-and-effect operation (explanations), the can use this information to form predictions.


It attempts to apply research to make certain outcomes occur. This objective refers to the application of research knowledge rather than the generation of research knowledge. It refers to the application of previous research to control various aspects of the world. 

Key Terms: Personality, Psycho-social, Psycho-sexual, Identity

Key Terms used by Erik Erikson:


It is the set of characteristics that we typically manifest in our interactions with others. It includes all the abilities, predispositions, habits, and other qualities that make each of us different.
It pertains to events or behaviors that relate to the social aspects of development. Erikson’s theory is psycho-social; it deals with the resolution of social crises and the development of social competencies.
A term used to describe psychological phenomena based on sexuality. Freud’s theories are psycho-sexual because they attribute development to sexually based forces and motives.


In Erikson’s theory, “identity” is a term closely related to self. Identity refers to the individual’s self-definition, a sort of personal sense of who and what one is. To achieve identity is to arrive at a clear notion of who one is. One of the important tasks of adolescence is to select and develop a strong sense of identity.


The concept that an individual has of himself or herself. Notions of the self are often closely allied with individual’s beliefs about how others perceive them.

Identity diffusion: 

An expression for a stage in early adolescence. During this stage, the adolescent has a vague and changing sense of identity with no firm vocational commitment and an ambiguous belief system.


Marcia’s term for the adoption of a ready-made identity.


Erikson’s term for the social functioning of the hiatus between childhood and adulthood. In Marcia’s description, moratorium individuals are those who have not yet made a commitment and who are in a state of crisis (conflict) as they examine and experiment with various identities.

Identity achieved: 

Marcia’s term for individuals who have experienced a crisis and made a commitment, thus achieving a sense of identity.