Showing posts with label Educational Administration. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Educational Administration. Show all posts

Wednesday 15 March 2017

Main Recommendations of "Education Commission" (Kothari Commission) (1964-1966)

The present article will let you know about the Indian Education Commission (which is also popularly known as "Kothari Commission"). The Commission was set up by the Government of India on 14 July 1964 under the chairmanship of Daulat Singh Kothari, then chairman of the University Grants Commission. The Commission's aimed at examining all aspects of the educational sector across the country. Among other objectives behind setting up of this Commission also included evolution of a general pattern of education. The commission, under the chairmanship of D. S. Kothari, was the sixth commission in India post independence and the first commission with comprehensive terms of reference on education. The Commission had submitted its Report on 29 June 1966; its recommendations were accommodated in India's first National Policy on Education in 1968. 

Education Commission or Kothari Commission

The main recommendations in the area of educational administration are as follows:

(1) Free and Compulsory Education:

 Strenuous efforts should be made for the early fulfillment of the Directive Principle under Article 45 of the Constitution seeking to provide free and compulsory education for all children up to the age of 14. Suitable programs should be developed to reduce the prevailing wastage and stagnation in schools and to ensure that every child who is enrolled in school successfully completes the prescribed course.

(2) Status, Emoluments and Education of Teachers

(a) Of all factors which determine the quality of education and its contribution to national development, the teacher is undoubtedly the most important. It is on his personal qualities and character, his educational qualifications and professional competence that the success of all educational endeavour must ultimately depend. Teachers must, therefore, be accorded an honoured place in society. Their emoluments and other service conditions should be adequate and satisfactory, having regard to their qualifications and responsibilities.

(b) The academic freedom of teachers to pursue and publish independent studies and researches and to speak and write about significant national and international issues should be protected.

(c) Teacher education, particularly in-service education, should receive due emphasis.

(3) Development of Languages

(a) Regional Languages: The energetic development of Indian languages and literature is a sine qua non for educational and cultural development. Unless this is done, the creative energies of the people will not be released, standards of education will not improve, knowledge will not spread to the people, and the gulf between the intelligentsia and the masses will remain, if not widen further. The regional languages are already in use as media of education at the primary and secondary stages. Urgent steps should now be taken to adopt them as media of education at the university stage.

(b) Three-Language Formula: At the secondary stage, the State Governments should adopt, and vigorously implement, the three-language formula which 'includes the study of a modern Indian language, preferably one of the southern languages, apart from Hindi and English in the Hindi-speaking States, and of Hindi along with the regional language and English in the non-Hindi speaking States. Suitable courses in Hindi and/or English should also be available in universities and colleges with a view to improving the proficiency of students in these languages up to the prescribed university standards.

(c) Hindi: Every effort should be made to promote the development of Hindi. In developing Hindi as the link language, due care should be taken to ensure that it will serve, as provided for in Article 351 of the Constitution, as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India. The establishment in non-Hindi States, of colleges and other institutions of higher education which use Hindi as the medium of education should be encouraged.

(d) Sanskrit: Considering the special importance of Sanskrit to the growth and development of Indian languages and its unique contribution to the cultural unity of the country, facilities for its teaching at the school and university stages should be offered on a more liberal scale. Development of new methods of teaching the language should be encouraged, and the possibility explored of including the study of Sanskrit in those courses (such as modern Indian languages, ancient Indian history, Indology and Indian philosophy) at the first and second degree stages, where such knowledge is useful.

(e) International Languages: Special emphasis needs to be laid on the study of English and other international languages. World knowledge is growing at a tremendous pace, especially in science and technology. India must not only keep up this growth but should also make her own significant contribution to it. For this purpose, study of English deserves to be specially strengthened.

(4) Equalization of Educational Opportunity

Strenuous efforts should be made to equalize educational opportunity.

(a) Regional imbalances in the provision of educational facilities should be corrected and good educational facilities should be provided in rural and other backward areas.

(b) To promote social cohesion and national integration the Common School System as recommended by the Education Commission should be adopted. Efforts should be made to improve the standard of education in general schools. All special schools like Public Schools should be required to admit students on the basis of merit and also to provide a prescribed proportion of free-studentships to prevent segregation of social classes. This will not, however, affect the rights of minorities under Article 30 of the Constitution.

(c) The education of girls should receive emphasis, not only on grounds of social justice, but also because it accelerates social transformation.

(d) More intensive efforts are needed to develop education among the backward classes and especially among the tribal people.

(e) Educational facilities for the physically and mentally handicapped children should be expanded and attempts should be made to develop integrated programs enabling the handicapped children to study in regular schools.

(5) Identification of Talent

 For the cultivation of excellence, it is necessary that talent in diverse fields should be identified at as early an age as possible, and every stimulus and opportunity given for its full development.

(6) Work-experience and National Service

 The school and the community should be brought closer through suitable programs of mutual service and support. Work-experience and national service, including participation in meaningful and challenging programs of community service and national reconstruction, should accordingly become an integral part of education. Emphasis in these programs should be on self-help, character formation and on developing a sense of social commitment.

(7) Science Education and Research

With a view to accelerating the growth of the national economy, science education and research should receive high priority. Science and mathematics should be an integral part of general education till the end of the school stage.

(8) Education for Agriculture and Industry

Special emphasis should be placed on the development of education for agriculture and industry.

(a) There should be at least one agricultural university in every State. These should, as far as possible, be single campus universities; but where necessary, they may have constituent colleges on different campuses. Other universities may also be assisted, where the necessary potential exists, to develop strong departments for the study of one or more aspects of agriculture.

(b) In technical education, practical training in industry should form an integral part of such education. Technical education and research should be related closely to industry, encouraging the flow of personnel both ways and providing for continuous cooperation in the provision, design and periodical review of training programs and facilities.

(c) There should be a continuous review of the agricultural, industrial and other technical manpower needs of the country and efforts should be made continuously to maintain a proper balance between the output of the educational institutions and employment opportunities.

(9) Production of Books

The quality of books should be improved by attracting the best writing talent through a liberal policy of incentives and remuneration. Immediate steps should be taken for the production of high quality textbooks for schools and universities. Frequent changes of textbooks should be avoided and their prices should be low enough for students of ordinary means to buy them. The possibility of establishing autonomous book corporations on commercial lines should be examined and efforts should be made to have a few basic textbooks common throughout the country. Special attention should be given to books for children and to university- level books in regional languages.

(10) Examinations

A major goal of examination reforms should be to improve the reliability and validity of examinations and to make evaluation a continuous process aimed at helping the student to improve his level of achievement rather than at 'certifying' the quality of his performance at a given moment of time.

(11) Secondary Education

(a) Educational opportunity at the secondary (and higher) level is a major instrument of social change and transformation. Facilities for secondary education should accordingly be extended expeditiously to the areas and classes which have been denied these in the past.

(b) There is a need to increase facilities for technical and vocational education at this stage. Provision of facilities for secondary and vocational education should conform broadly to the requirements of the developing economy and real employment opportunities. Such linkage is necessary to make technical and vocational education at the secondary stage effectively terminal. Facilities for technical and vocational education should be suitably diversified to cover a large number of fields, such as agriculture, industry, trade and commerce, medicine and public health, home management, arts and crafts, secretarial training, etc.

Tuesday 21 February 2017

National Committee on 10+2+3 educational structure (1973); National Policy on Education (1986); Ramamurti Review Committee (1990)

National Committee on 10+2+3 educational structure

On the recommendations of the Education Commission 1964-66, the 10+2+3 structure was incorporated in the statement of the National Policy on Education, 1968. The structure was discussed and endorsed by a number of All India Forums on education including the CABE. For a number of years, the details of the implementation of the new pattern could not be worked out. In 1973, The Government of India, Ministry of Education and Social Welfare, appointed a National Committee to formulate practical measures for introducing the proposed educational structure all over the country. As a result of the report of the Committee, a beginning was made by the Central Board of Secondary Education, New Delhi, to introduce this pattern in some of the schools affiliated to it. Since then the scheme has been accepted in principle by all the states and Union Territories.

National Policy on Education (1986)

The document “Challenge of Education”(1985) was debated in the country at various conferences, seminars and study circles. A detailed analysis was made of all the communications and recommendations received in the Ministry. Thereafter, the MHRD brought out a revised document “National Policy on Education 1986- A Presentation’. It was revised in the light of discussions and the ‘Draft National Policy on Education 1986 was finally adopted.
Main Recommendations of NPE’86:
·         National system of education; which envisaged on a common educational structure.
·         Minimum level of learning for each stage of education.
·         Operation Blackboard will be undertaken for the improvement of primary school all over the country.

Ramamurti Review Committee (1990):
Terms of reference-
1. To review the National Policy on Education, 1986 and its implementation;
1.       To make recommendations regarding revision of the policy;
2.      To recommend action necessary for implementation of revised policy within time frame.
The recommendations of the report could not be given their due consideration in view of the change of the Government at the centre.

CABE Committee or Janardhana Reddy Committee (1992):

The Chairman of the CABE appointed a Committee on 31st July, 1991, to review the implementation of various parameters of NPE. The recommendations were as follows-
1.       A standing CABE committee for education of the SCs/STs and other educationally backward sections should be constituted; educationists from these groups should have representation in that Committee.
2.      Common School System- Both the Center and the State should take determined action in this regard. The privileged schools should accept social accountability by sharing their facilities and resources with other institutions, taking up community activities, and facilitating access to children of the disadvantaged groups.
3.      Navodaya Vidyalayas should be setup in each district
4.      Early Childhood Care and Education- The Anganwadi workers should play expanded role and should be the focal point for a number of activities and support services for women and children, such as child care, family welfare, nutrition and health. It also talked about recruitment and training of Anganwadi workers to discharge the expanded role.
5.  Management of Education- the District Board of Education should be set up and operationalised expeditiously.
6.      Constitution of specialized State Level Educational Tribunals.

Mudaliar Commission or secondary Education Commission (1952-1953)

Till 1952 number of commissions had been appointed to survey Indian education; all of which dealt incidentally with certain aspect aspects of secondary education. But no Commission had so far been appointed to survey the problems of secondary education. The central advisory board of education in its meeting held in 1949 and 1951 recommended the appointment of a commission for secondary education.
The government of India; accordingly appointed the secondary education commission, under the chairmanship of Dr. A. Lakshmanswami Mudaliar , then Vice- Chancellor of Madras University.

The terms of reference were as follows-
·         To enquire into and report on the present position of Secondary education in India in all its aspects; and
·         Suggest measures for its reorganization and improvement with particular reference to:
                  the aims, organization, and content of secondary education
                  its relationship to Primary Basic and Higher Education;
                                  the inter relation of secondary schools of different types;
                     other allied problems
So that a sound and reasonable uniform system of secondary education suited to our needs and resources may be provided for the whole country. The commission submitted its report in June 1953. 

The recommendations regarding educational administration were as follows:

Duration of secondary education- the following new organizational structure for secondary education after the four or five years of Primary or Junior Basic Education;
·         A Middle or Junior Secondary or Senior Basic stage which should cover a period of 3 years;
·         A Higher Secondary stage which should cover a period of 4 years
High schools and higher secondary schools – the commission pointed that as it will not be possible to convert all existing high schools into higher secondary schools in the near future. So in the case of such schools, it said that, the problem would be to improve their efficiency within their present structure and recommended for the reconstruction of the curriculum and methods of education. The considerable improvements were also needed to make them more efficient and to enable them to be converted ultimately into Higher Secondary Schools. These improvements should include the provision of better qualified and more carefully selected personnel, better equipment, better laboratory and library facilities and better organization of co- curricular activities. In addition, the scheme of diversified courses of study should also introduce as far as possible.
There should be special criteria for
1.       Accommodation,
2.      Equipment,
3.      Qualifications of the staff,
4.       Salaries and Grades, and
5.      Adequate finances to ensure that the institution will continue to function efficiently. It said that such assurance must be offered either by the management itself or be provided on the basis of help guaranteed by the State and Central Governments.

Inspection of Schools:

1. The true role of an Inspector would be to study the problems of each school and view
them comprehensively in the context of educational objectives, to formulate suggestions for
improvement and help the teachers to carry out his advice and recommendations.
2. In addition of direct recruitment, inspectors should also be drawn from- teachers of ten
years’ experience, head masters of high schools and, duly qualified staff of training colleges
who may be allowed to work as such for a period of 3 to 5 years.

Management of schools: 

1. The managing boards of all schools should be registered and should consist of a limited
number of persons with the head master as an ex-officio member.
2. No member of the Managing board should directly or indirectly interfere with the
internal administration of the school.

School building and Equipment: 

1. The open spaces available in cities must be conserved  to be utilized as a playground by groups of schools
2. Normal, in designing buildings for schools, care should be taken to see that an area of not
less than 10 sq ft is provided per student in the class room.
3. The optimum number of boys to be admitted to any class should be 30 and the maximum
should not in any case exceed 40; the optimum number in the whole school should be 500
while the maximum should not exceed 750.

Hours of working and vacations:

1. As a rule the total number of working days in a school should not be less than 200, the
working hours per week should be at least 35 periods of about 45 minutes each; the school
should work regularly for six days in a week, one of the days being a half day when the
teachers and the student might meet informally and work together on various extra
curricular and social projects.


1. A cess called the industrial education cess be levied, the amount collected to be utilized for the furtherance of technical and vocational education at the secondary stage.
2. The center should assume a certain amount of direct responsibility for the contemplated reorganization of secondary education and give financial aid for the purpose.

Committee on relationship between state governments and local bodies in the administration of primary education (1951)

In 1948 at the 18th meeting of the CABE, the government of Bihar raised the question of relationships between the state governments and local bodies in respect of administration of elementary education. The ministry of education therefore appointed this committee in 1951. Shri B. G. Kher, chief minister, Bombay was the chairman of that committee. There were 11 more members on the committee. The terms of reference were-
To examine, in detail the present setup of local administration of education in the different states in the assumption of more powers by the state governments, the requirements of different state governments in this regard and to recommend a more or less uniform pattern with few variations , be adopted in all the states of India.

Major recommendations of the commission:

  1. Association of local bodies with the administration of primary education- It said that it would be an advantage to associate local bodies with the administration of primary education in some form or other.
  2. Creation of educational bodies-
·         In all village panchayats and smaller municipalities which have been given only a limited control over primary education, the local body should be required to elect a school committee and to delegate to it the task of supervising the local school or schools.
·         In district local boards and in bigger municipalities which exercise wider power over primary education, a school board should be constituted and charged with the responsibility of looking after educational powers as well as an administrative officer having adequate authority to carry on the day to day administration of its primary schools.
·         The government should adopt the independent system of associating educational bodies with the corresponding local authorities generally.
·         The appointment of administrative officers should be obligatory under the statute in the case of all district school boards and the larger municipalities. They should be servants of state government.
  1. Division of authority on a functional basis-
·         Inspection should be regarded as a duty of the government and should be carried out by government officers. All inspecting officers should be directly under the government and the local bodies should have no contact over them.
·         State government should solely responsible for maintaining or aiding the requisite number of training institutions for primary teachers.
·         The authority to define curricula of courses of study at the primary level should continue to vest in the state governments. But the local bodies should also be authorized, with the previous approval of the Director of Education, to introduce such variations in the prescribed curricula as they may seem necessary in view of local condition.
·         In every major municipality authorized to administer primary school within its area and in every district school board, the authority to recruit and control the teaching staff should vest in the staff selection committee, the administrative officer, and the appellate tribunal constituted on lines similar to those adopted in Bombay.
·         The service conditions of primary teachers should be determined by the local bodies concerned with the sanction of state governments and as far as possible these should be uniform throughout the states.
·         The primary teachers should continue to be treated as servants of local bodies as at present.

Regarding text books, it suggested that state governments should prescribe, on the advice of official and non official experts in the subject, the books to be used in primary schools, and where more than one book happens to be prescribed in a subject, the local body should have the freedom to choose any one of the prescribed in a subject, the local body should have the freedom to choose any one of the prescribed books for use in schools under its control.
  1. Division of authority on the basis of the local body associated-
  • City Corporation – the general policy should be to devolve as large as authority upon city corporations as possible.
  • Authorized municipalities- the larger municipalities may be designated as ‘authorized municipalities’. They will differ from corporations in three ways 1) the government will actually conduct inspections instead of merely reserving he right to do so. 2) The general control of the government will be a little more detailed and 3) the administrative officers should preferably remain the servants of state governments.
  •  Non-authorized municipalities – the small municipalities cannot be permitted to administer primary education in their areas will have to be treated at a still lower level.
  • Villages- the powers and duties of village school committees should be divided into two groups; the first group will include all those powers which a village committee will have as soon as it is formed, and the second group will include all those powers which can be conferred on it by the District School Board , in views of its efficiency.
  • District School Boards- the power and duties of these bodies should be similar to those of the Municipal School Boards.
5.  Finance-
  • The union government should assign specific grants for universal and compulsory primary education in the states.
  • A sum not less than 60% of the total education expenditure of the state should be spent on primary education
  • State grants to local bodies on account of primary education should be based on a combination of proportional grant (used to secure a broad equalization as well as to provide for rapid expansion), a special grant for backward or necessitous areas, the specific purpose grants.
  • Grants for all primary education – whether voluntary or compulsory- should be statutory.
  • The municipal acts should be amended so as to make the levy of all education cess obligatory or municipalities to ear mark a specified proportion of their total revenue for primary education all funds thus ear marked for primary education should be entitled to receive grant in aid according to rules.
·   In village panchayats a portion of the total revenue should be earmarked for primary education.

6. Approved schools-
  • Local bodies associated with the administration of primary education should ordinarily be in charge of all primary schools in their areas, whether maintained under their direct control or managed by private agencies.
  • The authority to control and guide the private primary school in there areas should generally vest in the local bodies themselves.
  • The state government should retain a few powers to themselves with a view to seeing that no hardship are caused to private schools should vest concurrently in the state governments, local bodies and managements.
  • Regarding grant or withdrawal of recognition to a private school. The committee suggested that
1) The inspecting officers of the department should be required to carry out, in the first instance, an investigation into every proposal for the grant or withdrawal of recognition to a private primary school.
2) The school board concerned should consider the report of such investigation and then decide whether recognition should or should not be granted or should be withdrawn and,
  • Any party aggrieved by the order of the School Board should have the right to prefer an appeal to the director of education or to any other specified officer.
7. The authority to grant recognition should also be authority to sanction Grant in aid.

Committee of the Ways and Means of financial Educational Development (1950)

The 14th meeting of the CABE and the All India Educational Conference held in January 1948 raised question of future programme of education. It was generally agreed that the period of forty years laid down in the report of post war education development in India published in January 1944 must be curtailed and if necessary for the purpose, stage up to which compulsion should be enforced may be reduced. It was therefore decided to appoint a committee to examine the existing financial condition and the programme for educational development for all provinces and states and to make suggestions to ensure that educational development may not be held up for want of funds. The Chairman of this Committee was Shri B. G. Kher.


1. To consider in the light of present conditions in the finances (recurring and nonrecurring) required for different stages of a comprehensive system of education for India.
2. To consider ways and means of any and all of the following methods-
  • Central grants – allocation of the sources of revenue between the central and the provincial governments under the new constitution; scope and extent of grants from central revenues –to provincial governments, for central all India schemes of development, and to universities and all India institutions.
  • Levy of an educational cess- its feasibility and details of its levy, administration and distribution.
  • Educational loans- purposes for which educational loans may be raised and the terms on which they should be raised and applied.

3. To consider any other feasible suggestions for raising the finances for educational development programme.

    The committee recommended that

  • The state must undertake the responsibility of providing at least junior basic education for every body.
  • The basic minimum salary of trained basic school teachers should be Rs. 40 per mensem and should on no account be reduced.
  • Teacher-pupil ratio may be 1:40 for at least coming five years.
  • In urban areas, where conditions justify, the same school buildings should be used for two shifts provided different teachers are employed in each shift.
  • The may enact suitable legislation for ensuring that an adequate percentage of the income of all charitable trusts is allotted for expenditure on education provided that the government may exempt certain specified types of trust(medical trust; etc) from the operation of such law.
  • Voluntary efforts should be encouraged for meeting the capital and recurring cost of educational institutions with such assistance from government as may be feasible.
  • About 70 % of the expenditure on education should be borne by the local bodies and provinces and the remaining 30% by the centre.
  • All contributions for education approved by the provincial or central government should be exempted from income tax.

Educational Administration after Independence in India

After independence the first action of a great significance to be taken by the government of India in the field of educational administration was the appointment of the university education under the chairmanship of Dr. S. Radhakrishnan, a distinguished scholar and former vice chancellor of Banaras Hindu University. The report of the commission is a document of great importance as it has guided development of the university education in India since the independence. This commission was appointed to report on Indian university education and suggest improvements and extensions that may desirable to suite present and future requirements of the country. It submitted tits report in august 1949.

Main terms of reference-

1. The aims and objectives of university education and research in India.
2. The changes considered necessary and desirable in the constitution, control, functions and jurisdiction of universities in India and their relation with government- central and provincial.
3. The finance of universities.
4. The maintenance of the highest standards of teaching and examination in the university courses of study with reference to the desirability of an independent university entrance examination and the avoidance of unfair discrimination which mitigate against fundamental rights 23(2).
5. Need for more universities on a regional and other basis.
6. The organization of advanced research in all branches of knowledge in the universities and institutes of higher research in a well coordinated fashion avoiding waste of effort and resources.
7. The special problems of the Banaras Hindu University, the Aligarh Muslim University, the Delhi University and other instructions of an all India character.
8. The qualifications, conditions of service, salaries, privileges and functions of teachers and the encouragement of original research by teachers.
9. The discipline of students, hostels and organization of tutorial work and any other matter which is essential to a complete and comprehensive enquiry into all aspects of university education and advanced research in India.

Major recommendations the commission:

1. Teaching staff- there should be four classes of teachers, professors, readers, lecturers and instructors. Promotions from one category to another to be solely on grounds of merit.
2. To avoid overcrowding at universities and colleges, the maximum number in Arts and Science faculties of a teaching university be fixed at 3000 and in affiliated collage at 1500.
3. The number of working days be substantially increased to ensure a minimum of 180 in the year, exclusive of examination days.
4. University education be placed on the concurrent list.
5. The concern of the central government with the universities be with regard to finance, coordination of facilities in special subjects, adoption of national policies, ensuring medium standards of efficient administration and liaisons between universities and national research laboratories and scientific surveys, etc.
6. Finance: the UGC be set up for allocation of grants.

Special attention to be paid to the development of higher education in rural areas.