Saturday 4 March 2017

What are the Different Types of Research?

Types of Research:

Generally, research is classified into the following categories based on the objectives the researcher intends to accomplish.

Basic or Fundamental Research:  

Basic research is aimed at generating fundamental knowledge and theoretical understanding about basic human and other natural processes. The purpose of basic or fundamental research is generation of new knowledge for the sake of knowledge. It is not directed towards the solution of immediate practical problems. Basic research is usually conducted by using the most rigorous research methods (e.g., experimental) under tightly controlled laboratory conditions.
Fundamental Research

Applied Research: 

Applied research is focused on answering real-world, practical questions in order to provide relatively immediate solutions. It is performed in relation to actual problems and under the conditions in which they are found in practice. Topics for applied research are often driven by current problems in education and by policymakers’ concerns. Applied research is often conducted in more natural settings (i.e., more realistic or real-world settings) than basic research. Most of the educational researches are applied researches whose objectives are to develop generalizations about teaching learning processes, instructional materials, the behavior of children, ways to modify it, and so on.
Applied Research

Action Research: 

Action research is focused on solving specific problems that local practitioners face in their schools and communities. It views your classroom or other work environment as a place to conduct research. In action research, practitioners in the local settings design and conduct the research study. It is focused more on local practice and local solutions; it is more participatory; and it is conducted by teachers, administrators, counselors, coaches, and other educational professionals trying to solve their very specific problems.  According to Corey (1953), “Action research is the research undertaken by practitioner, so that they may improve their practices. It helps a practitioner to perceive, understand and assess the situation and it further facilitates a systematic analysis and working out plausible reasons, for the unsatisfactory condition. With action research, a practitioner can try out alternative strategies till the problem is solved satisfactorily.”
Action Research

Evaluation Research: 

Evaluation research or simply evaluation specifically involves determining the worth, merit, or qualities of an evaluation object such as an educational program. Evaluation research (or evaluation) is subdivided into two types—formative evaluation and summative evaluation. When the primary purpose of an evaluation is to lead to judgments about how a program can be improved, it is called a formative evaluation. And when the primary objective of an evaluation is to lead to judgments about whether a program is effective and whether it should be continued, it is called a summative evaluation.
Evaluation Research

Orientational Research: 

This type of research focuses on collecting information to help a researcher advance a specific ideological or political position or orientation that he/she believes will improve some part of our society. Though all orientational researchers are concerned with reducing inequality of some form, there are several variants of orientational research. The most common areas of focus are class stratification (i.e., income and wealth inequality), gender inequality, racial and ethnic inequality, sexual orientation inequality, and international inequality (i.e., rich and poor nations). Orientational research is sometimes called critical theory research, mainly because these researchers often are critical of mainstream research.