Thursday, 23 March 2017

What are the “Remedial Measures” for Behavior Problem?

The present article discusses various remedial measures necessary for behavior problem. These measures include "teacher’s Attitude towards his/her job", "change in teacher’s attitude towards the problem child", "abolition of physical punishment", "opportunity to learn good behavior", "good teaching", "motherly attitude of teachers", "appointment of lady teachers", and "behavior modification techniques".

Remedial Measures

If we have to help the problem child to proceed along correct lines and to maximize his potentialities, the following remedial measures needs to be taken:

(i) Teacher’s Attitude towards His Job:

Some teachers believe that teaching is the only duty which they have to perform and that remediation of behaviour problem is not their responsibility. Thus, they lack concern in behaviour problems of children. In worst cases they refer a problem child to the headmaster. In reality, showing lack of concern or referring problem cases to the headmaster is an instance of avoiding or shifting responsibility. 

A teacher may live in peace for sometime by keeping himself aloof from the problem situation but this does not bring permanent solution of the problem. The teacher fails to understand the child. His problem becomes more and more serious. A time comes when his instruction is bound to be interrupted. Due to lack of a sense of responsibility on the part of the teacher, other children in the classroom are also affected.

Monday, 20 March 2017

What is “Behavior Problem”?

The present article will discuss in detail about behavior problem”, “its (behavior problem) occurrence at different stages of development”, “symptoms or signs of behavior problem”, “causes of behavior problem”, what is meant by “adolescent rebellion”.

Behavior Problem
Behavior Problem

What is “Behavior Problem”?

Every child shows some behavior problem at a particular stage or at different stages of development in his life. But in case of some children, behavior problems occur more frequently. Some of these behavioral problems persist over a period of time like a chronic disease. In most cases, these problems interfere with their normal day-to-day activities and the activities of the classroom.

The behavior problem refers to those behaviors of the child which create or which are likely to create difficulties in the learning activities of the child. As a result, the instructional program and discipline of the classroom get hampered.

About 2-4 percent of children in the classroom demonstrate behavior problems. The occurrence of behavior problems is more in case of boys than in case of girls. Girls also experience behavioral problem; since they (girls) are more capable of socially adaptable behavior, their problems do not come to focus.

A child may show one or more than one behavior problem during his period of development. Some behavior problems may occur at a specific stage of development while some behavior problems occur at different stages.

For example, revolt against parents, teachers, and other authority figures is characteristics feature of adolescence. Similarly, stranger anxiety is a problem of infancy. Lack of interest in studies or negligence of duties may occur at any stage of development.

M. Dash (1995) conducted a study on behavior problems of children. His findings reveal the following behavior problems occurring at different stages of development.

Stages of Development
Behavior Problems
Lack of appetite
Stranger anxiety
Separation anxiety
Sibling rivalry
Early Childhood
Excessive shyness
Temper tantrums
Bullying and teasing
Late Childhood
Excessive shyness
Temper tantrums
Bullying and teasing
Telling a lie
Destroying school property
Getting nervous and feeling disappointed over petty matters

Rebellion against parents, teachers, and authority
Unhappiness and excessively moody
Bullying and teasing
Telling a lie
Destroying school property
Defiance and disobedience
Excessive daydreaming
Objectionable behavior towards girls
Getting disappointed over petty matters
Excessively thoughtful
Excessive carelessness

Causes of Behavior Problems:

Every behavior has a cause. The behavior problem of a child has also a cause or a number of causes. The manner in which the child behaves is clear enough to suggest that he has a problem. This external manifestation of the child’s problem through his typical behavior may not indicate the real cause or causes of his problem.

For example, a child of Class V steals money from the schoolbag of his classmates. But why does he steal money? There may be a number of causes of his stealing money. Stealing money is a symptom of an underlying problem. The causes of his behavior problem cannot be ascertained from its symptom. The causes of his behavior problem can only be ascertained through a psychological analysis.

A child behaves in a specific way to meet his basic needs and to avoid or to get rid of frustrating circumstances or the impending danger which may arise out of the failure to satisfy his basic needs. if his behavior is not socially acceptable, it is considered as behavior problem.

Behavior problems are not hereditary in nature. They are caused by social and psychological environment of the child. The environment which causes behavior problem may be the home environment or the school environment of the child.

Home Environment:

Some children come from families with low socio-economic status. The way such children are brought up, the care, education and stimulation which they receive in their homes cause behavior problems in such children.

It is generally noticed that the occurrence of behavior problems is more in case of children who come from low societies than those children who belong to middle class or high class societies.

For example, a child from low class society may learn that stealing is acceptable until it is detected. But a child from high class society may learn that stealing is bad.

In some homes, parents exert authority over their children. Children who are brought up by authoritarian parents generally show bullying and teasing behavior towards their classmates. Some children are rebuked, scolded, insulted, blamed and punished very frequently by their parents. They are considered as useless by their parents. In some cases, these children are rejected and neglected by their parents. Such children show behavior problems at later point of time.

Parents teach social and moral values to their children. Children also learn values from their peers. Very often parental values come in conflict with the value system of peers. If the child fails to appreciate the parental values and behave accordingly and if his behavior is predominantly influenced by the value system of peers, behavior problem may occur.  This is particularly noticed during adolescence. We call it “adolescent rebellion”.

In some homes, children are discourages by their parents for performing various activities. Such children fail to co-operate in various school programs. A child who has been discouraged in his home does not understand the significance of co-operative behavior in school. Rather, he demonstrates “attention-getting mechanism” to draw other’s attention towards him.

School Environment:

In addition to the home environment, the school environment is largely responsible for behavior problems of children.

The school policy, the social, moral and psychological climate of the school, teacher’s behavior and attitude towards the problem child, and inter-personal relationship among children in the school, etc. lead to the behavior problem or aggravate the behavior problem of children.

Some children notice differences in the behavior acceptable in school and those that are encouraged at home. Generally in most schools, middle class behavioral standards are accepted. If a child from low social class imitates the behavior of middle class and behaves accordingly at his home, parents discourages it.

Wednesday, 15 March 2017

Main Recommendations of "Education Commission" (Kothari Commission) (1964-1966)

The present article will let you know about the Indian Education Commission (which is also popularly known as "Kothari Commission"). The Commission was set up by the Government of India on 14 July 1964 under the chairmanship of Daulat Singh Kothari, then chairman of the University Grants Commission. The Commission's aimed at examining all aspects of the educational sector across the country. Among other objectives behind setting up of this Commission also included evolution of a general pattern of education. The commission, under the chairmanship of D. S. Kothari, was the sixth commission in India post independence and the first commission with comprehensive terms of reference on education. The Commission had submitted its Report on 29 June 1966; its recommendations were accommodated in India's first National Policy on Education in 1968. 

Education Commission or Kothari Commission

The main recommendations in the area of educational administration are as follows:

(1) Free and Compulsory Education:

 Strenuous efforts should be made for the early fulfillment of the Directive Principle under Article 45 of the Constitution seeking to provide free and compulsory education for all children up to the age of 14. Suitable programs should be developed to reduce the prevailing wastage and stagnation in schools and to ensure that every child who is enrolled in school successfully completes the prescribed course.

(2) Status, Emoluments and Education of Teachers

(a) Of all factors which determine the quality of education and its contribution to national development, the teacher is undoubtedly the most important. It is on his personal qualities and character, his educational qualifications and professional competence that the success of all educational endeavour must ultimately depend. Teachers must, therefore, be accorded an honoured place in society. Their emoluments and other service conditions should be adequate and satisfactory, having regard to their qualifications and responsibilities.

(b) The academic freedom of teachers to pursue and publish independent studies and researches and to speak and write about significant national and international issues should be protected.

(c) Teacher education, particularly in-service education, should receive due emphasis.

(3) Development of Languages

(a) Regional Languages: The energetic development of Indian languages and literature is a sine qua non for educational and cultural development. Unless this is done, the creative energies of the people will not be released, standards of education will not improve, knowledge will not spread to the people, and the gulf between the intelligentsia and the masses will remain, if not widen further. The regional languages are already in use as media of education at the primary and secondary stages. Urgent steps should now be taken to adopt them as media of education at the university stage.

(b) Three-Language Formula: At the secondary stage, the State Governments should adopt, and vigorously implement, the three-language formula which 'includes the study of a modern Indian language, preferably one of the southern languages, apart from Hindi and English in the Hindi-speaking States, and of Hindi along with the regional language and English in the non-Hindi speaking States. Suitable courses in Hindi and/or English should also be available in universities and colleges with a view to improving the proficiency of students in these languages up to the prescribed university standards.

(c) Hindi: Every effort should be made to promote the development of Hindi. In developing Hindi as the link language, due care should be taken to ensure that it will serve, as provided for in Article 351 of the Constitution, as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India. The establishment in non-Hindi States, of colleges and other institutions of higher education which use Hindi as the medium of education should be encouraged.

(d) Sanskrit: Considering the special importance of Sanskrit to the growth and development of Indian languages and its unique contribution to the cultural unity of the country, facilities for its teaching at the school and university stages should be offered on a more liberal scale. Development of new methods of teaching the language should be encouraged, and the possibility explored of including the study of Sanskrit in those courses (such as modern Indian languages, ancient Indian history, Indology and Indian philosophy) at the first and second degree stages, where such knowledge is useful.

(e) International Languages: Special emphasis needs to be laid on the study of English and other international languages. World knowledge is growing at a tremendous pace, especially in science and technology. India must not only keep up this growth but should also make her own significant contribution to it. For this purpose, study of English deserves to be specially strengthened.

(4) Equalization of Educational Opportunity

Strenuous efforts should be made to equalize educational opportunity.

(a) Regional imbalances in the provision of educational facilities should be corrected and good educational facilities should be provided in rural and other backward areas.

(b) To promote social cohesion and national integration the Common School System as recommended by the Education Commission should be adopted. Efforts should be made to improve the standard of education in general schools. All special schools like Public Schools should be required to admit students on the basis of merit and also to provide a prescribed proportion of free-studentships to prevent segregation of social classes. This will not, however, affect the rights of minorities under Article 30 of the Constitution.

(c) The education of girls should receive emphasis, not only on grounds of social justice, but also because it accelerates social transformation.

(d) More intensive efforts are needed to develop education among the backward classes and especially among the tribal people.

(e) Educational facilities for the physically and mentally handicapped children should be expanded and attempts should be made to develop integrated programs enabling the handicapped children to study in regular schools.

(5) Identification of Talent

 For the cultivation of excellence, it is necessary that talent in diverse fields should be identified at as early an age as possible, and every stimulus and opportunity given for its full development.

(6) Work-experience and National Service

 The school and the community should be brought closer through suitable programs of mutual service and support. Work-experience and national service, including participation in meaningful and challenging programs of community service and national reconstruction, should accordingly become an integral part of education. Emphasis in these programs should be on self-help, character formation and on developing a sense of social commitment.

(7) Science Education and Research

With a view to accelerating the growth of the national economy, science education and research should receive high priority. Science and mathematics should be an integral part of general education till the end of the school stage.

(8) Education for Agriculture and Industry

Special emphasis should be placed on the development of education for agriculture and industry.

(a) There should be at least one agricultural university in every State. These should, as far as possible, be single campus universities; but where necessary, they may have constituent colleges on different campuses. Other universities may also be assisted, where the necessary potential exists, to develop strong departments for the study of one or more aspects of agriculture.

(b) In technical education, practical training in industry should form an integral part of such education. Technical education and research should be related closely to industry, encouraging the flow of personnel both ways and providing for continuous cooperation in the provision, design and periodical review of training programs and facilities.

(c) There should be a continuous review of the agricultural, industrial and other technical manpower needs of the country and efforts should be made continuously to maintain a proper balance between the output of the educational institutions and employment opportunities.

(9) Production of Books

The quality of books should be improved by attracting the best writing talent through a liberal policy of incentives and remuneration. Immediate steps should be taken for the production of high quality textbooks for schools and universities. Frequent changes of textbooks should be avoided and their prices should be low enough for students of ordinary means to buy them. The possibility of establishing autonomous book corporations on commercial lines should be examined and efforts should be made to have a few basic textbooks common throughout the country. Special attention should be given to books for children and to university- level books in regional languages.

(10) Examinations

A major goal of examination reforms should be to improve the reliability and validity of examinations and to make evaluation a continuous process aimed at helping the student to improve his level of achievement rather than at 'certifying' the quality of his performance at a given moment of time.

(11) Secondary Education

(a) Educational opportunity at the secondary (and higher) level is a major instrument of social change and transformation. Facilities for secondary education should accordingly be extended expeditiously to the areas and classes which have been denied these in the past.

(b) There is a need to increase facilities for technical and vocational education at this stage. Provision of facilities for secondary and vocational education should conform broadly to the requirements of the developing economy and real employment opportunities. Such linkage is necessary to make technical and vocational education at the secondary stage effectively terminal. Facilities for technical and vocational education should be suitably diversified to cover a large number of fields, such as agriculture, industry, trade and commerce, medicine and public health, home management, arts and crafts, secretarial training, etc.

Tuesday, 14 March 2017

"Correlational Research and Its Characteristics"; "Coefficient Correlation and Its Types"

If you are involved in educational statistics, you must be interested to know about the Correlational Research. The present article will help you understand the following: What is Correlational Research? Where is the Correlational Research applied? What are the Advantages of Correlational Research? What are the Limitations of Correlational Research? What is Coefficient Correlation? What are the Types of Coefficient Correlation ("Positive Correlation", "Negative Correlation", "No Correlation", and "Perfect Correlation")?

What is Correlational Research and its Characteristics?

Correlational Research
Correlational Research is a non-experimental research method. In this research method, there is no manipulation of an independent variable. 

In correlational research, the researcher studies the relationship between one or more quantitative independent variables and one or more quantitative dependent variables. In other words, it can be said that in correlational research, the independent and dependent variables are quantitative.

It is important to stress that correlations refer to measures of association and do not necessarily indicate causal relationships between variables.

Mouly puts it like this: “The correlation simply implies concomitance; it is not synonymous with causation. It may suggest causation in the same sense that the variables involved are part of a cause and effect system, but the nature of the system and the direction in which the components operate is not specified in the correlation. The two variables are not necessarily (or perhaps even commonly) the cause and effect of each other. The correlation between X and Y is often nothing more than the reflection of the operation of a third factor.”

When Correlational Research is appropriate:

Correlational research is appropriate in the following two instances:

First, it is appropriate when there is need to discover or clarify relationships and where correlation coefficients will achieve these ends. It is especially useful in this connection in the initial stages of a project where a certain amount of basic groundwork has to be covered to get some idea of the structure of relationships. In this way, it gets at degrees of relationships which may become a source of hypotheses and further research.

The correlational approach is also valuable when variables are complex and do not lend themselves therefore to the experimental method and controlled manipulation. It also permits the measurement of several variables and their relationships simultaneously in realistic settings.

Second, correlational research is appropriate where objective, or one of a set of objectives, is to achieve some degree of prediction. (prediction studies are appropriate where a firm basis of previous knowledge is present, the assumption being that at least some of the factors will relate to the behavior to be predicted).

Advantages of Correlational Research:

Correlational research is particularly useful in tackling the problems of education and social sciences because it allows for the measurement of a number of variables and their relationships simultaneously.

The experimental approach, by contrast, is characterized by the manipulation of a single variable and is thus appropriate for dealing with problems where simple causal relationship exist.

In educational and behavioral research, it is invariably the case that a number of variables contribute to a particular outcome. Experimental research thus introduces a note of unreality into research, whereas correlational approaches, while less rigorous, allow for the study of behavior in more realistic settings.

Correlational research yields information concerning the degree of relationship between the variables being studied. It thus provides the researcher with insights into the way variables operate that cannot be gained by other means.

Limitations of Correlational Research:

Correlational research only identifies what goes with what—it only implies concomitance and therefore does not necessarily establish cause-and-effect relationships.

It is less rigorous than the experimental approach because it exercises less control over the independent variables. It is prone to identify spurious relation patterns. It adopts an atomistic approach.

What is the value of the Correlation Coefficient ("r")?

Correlation Coefficient

To understand how to study the relationship between two variables when both are quantitative, one needs a basic understanding of a correlation coefficient.

Correlation is the relationship between two or more paired variables or two or more sets of data. The degree of relationship is measured and represented by the coefficient of correlation.

It is a numerical index that provides information about the strength and direction of the relationship between two variables. It provides information about how two variables are associated.

More specifically, a correlation coefficient is a number that can range from -1 to 1, with zero standing for no correlation at all.

Positive Correlation:

If the number is greater than zero, there is a positive correlation. (A positive correlation is present when scores on two variables tend to move in the same direction).

Negative Correlation:

If the number is less than zero, there is a negative correlation. (A negative correlation is present when scores on two variables tend to move in opposite directions—as one variable goes up, the other tends to go down and vice versa)

No Correlation:

If the number is equal to zero, then there is no correlation between the two variables being correlated.

Perfect Correlation:

If the number is equal to +1 or equal to -1, the correlation is called perfect; that is, it is as strong as possible.

Data analysis for Correlation Research:

Sunday, 12 March 2017

Theories of Forgetting: Distortion, Repression, Retroactive and Proactive Inhibition

One question comes to our mind, and that is, why do we forget things or experiences. 
In order to answer this question, there are several possible explanations of what is involved in forgetting. Each of these might have important instructional implications.

Theories of Forgetting
Theories of Forgetting


Fading theory holds that material not brought to mind frequently enough (not used) tends to fade from memory.

What is forgetting?

It is the cessation of a response as a function of the passage of time, not to be confused with extinction.

What is fading theory?

The belief that the inability to recall long-term memories increases with the passage of time as memory traces face. It is also known as decay theory.

Many psychologists do not consider fading theory (also called decay theory) very useful or informative. They argue that time, by itself, does not cause forgetting any more than it causes metal to rust or mountains to erode.

Theory of Decay
Theory of Decay

Educational Implication:

If students forget information because of disuse, teachers can provide repetition and review to remind them of important items.


Memories that don’t entirely fade are often distorted or confused with other memories. As a result, when a person tries to recall the experience, only fragments of the episode is available, and it becomes impossible to remember how and when the fragments were acquired.

Educational Implications:

One way for teachers to help counter this distortion is to emphasize the most important and distinct (the most memorable) aspects of a situation. Features that are highly distinct will be more easily and more accurately remembered.


There is some evidence that people may forget events that are particularly unpleasant. One explanation for repression is Freud’s belief that unpleasant memories filter into the subconscious mind, where the individual is not aware of them even though they may continue to have a profound effect on the person’s emotional life.

Educational Implication:

Repression theory holds that memories of highly unpleasant (traumatic) events may be unconsciously repressed. Ideally, schools and teachers seldom provide students with experiences so horrendous that they end up being buried in an unconscious place.

What is distortion?

It is one explanation for memory loss. It describes a process where the features of an experience are insufficiently bound together so that the person recollecting the experience cannot easily tell what happened when.

What is repression?

It is a Freudian term for the process by which intensely negative or frightening experiences are lost from conscious memory.

 Retroactive and Proactive Inhibition:

A highly researched theory of forgetting, and one with direct relevance for teachers, states that interference from previous or subsequent learning is an important cause of forgetting.

When previous learning interferes with current recall, proactive inhibition is said to occur; retroactive inhibition takes place when subsequent learning interferes with the recall of previous learning.

For example, teachers often have difficulty remembering the names of new students, especially if they have been teaching for a long time and have known many students with similar names. They confuse old names with new but similar faces. Their old learning interferes with learning something new—hence, proactive inhibition.

Once the teachers have learned the names of all their current students, they sometimes find it difficult to remember the names of students from years past. Now newer learning interferes with the recall of old information—hence, retroactive inhibition.

What is proactive inhibition?

It is the interference of earlier learning with the retention of subsequent learning.

What is retroactive inhibition?

It is the interference with the retention of previously learned material by subsequently learned material.

 Educational Implication:

Among the most important suggestions for countering the effects of interference and increasing the ability to recall information are those involving teaching for transfer (also termed generalization). Transfer (or generalization) refers to the effects of old learning on new learning; transfer can be either positive or negative.

Saturday, 11 March 2017

Processes in Long-Term Memory: Rehearsal, Elaboration, and Organization

The functioning of the information processing system (memory model) has a simple goal: to make sense of significant sensation and to organize and store for recall that which is potentially either important or/and interesting, or useful while ignoring or discarding more trivial matters.
Long-Term Memory: Rehearsal, Elaboration, and Organization
Long-Term Memory Process

To achieve this goal, the system uses a variety of processes. Much sensory data that is not attended to (not processed) does not go beyond immediate sensory memory. Paying attention is one of the important activities, or processes, of our information processing system. By this means, information is transferred from sensory to short-term storage.

There are three other basic processes that are involved in remembering. These are: rehearsal, elaboration, and organization.