Friday, 3 March 2017

Programmed Instruction

Programmed Instruction

A program is a subject which pupils learn. As far as programmed instruction is concerned, it is a new strategy of teaching. It is a device or strategy to control student’s behavior and helps them learn without the supervision of a teacher. It is highly individualized instructional strategy for modification of behavior.

The programmed instruction is the arrangement of materials which are to be learnt by the pupils in graded steps of difficulty; it is in such a manner and sequence that it will result in the most efficient rate of understanding and retention. It is a method of giving individualized instructions in which the student is active and proceeds at his/her own pace. Physical presence of teacher is not essential in this strategy.

According to Smith and Moore (1962), “Programmed instruction is a process of arranging the material to be learned into a series of sequential steps, usually it moves from a familiar background into complex and set of concepts, principles and understanding.”

Thus, it can be concluded that the programmed instruction is an auto-instructional technique. The information is provided in small steps and each learner progresses at his/her own pace.

Origin of Programmed Instruction:

  1. The origin of modern programmed instruction is from the psychology of learning and not from technology.
  2. It is an application of operant conditioning learning theory to teaching-learning situations.
  3. It has got a historical momentum, after the publication of “The science of learning and art of teaching” article by B.F. Skinner. In this article, Skinner listed the problems of education system. He also discussed the potential of instructional programs to provide more feedback.

Characteristics of Programmed Instructions:

As far as characteristics of programmed instructions, these are as follows:
  • It is not an audio visual device. It is a part of education technology, i.e. instructional technology.
  • It is a method of giving or receiving individualized instructions. It keeps in view their individual differences. The learner moves at his/her own speed.
  • It clearly defines the entering and terminal behavior of the learners.
  • It is not the solution of educational problems. It is a new instructional strategy for the modification of behavior of learner.
  • It is systematic and sequenced.
  • It cannot replace the teacher
  • It provides immediate feedback to the learners.

Objectives of Programmed Instruction:

The objectives of programmed instruction have been summarized as follows:
  • To help the student in learning by doing.
  • To provide the learners situation so that they can learn at their own pace.
  • To help students learn in the absence of a teacher.
  • To present the content in a controlled manner and in logically related steps.
  • To help students in assessing their own performance themselves by comparing it with the given answers.

Assumptions Regarding Programmed Instruction:

The programmed instruction has the following basic assumptions:
  • The student has learnt micro teaching procedure.
  • The student learns better if the content matter is presented in small steps.
  • The student learns better if he/she is motivated to learn by confirming the responses.
  • The student learns better if he/she commits minimum errors in learning.
  • The student learns better if the sequence of content is psychological workable.
  • The learning may be effective if the pre-requisites are specified on part of the learner.

Principles of Programmed Instruction:

Principles of Programmed Instruction

A good programmed instruction is based upon the principles of learning. These principles are based on psychological theories. There are five fundamental principles of programmed instruction. These are the following.

Principle of Small Steps:  

A program is prepared with large number of small and easy steps. The subject matter is broken down into a sequence of small step. A learner can take a step at a time. He/she has to read a small step by being active. Learning is better when the material is presented in small steps. It also reduces the rate of committing errors and encourages further learning.

Principle of Active Responding: 

Programmed instruction provides the information in the form of small steps and each step is required to be responded by the learner. Hence, the learner should be actively involved in the learning material. The learner does not remain passive because there is a need of active involvement in learning. The learner has to construct the response. It is an integral part of learning. The frames of program should also be designed logically that the learner shows interest in responding the frames.

Principle of Immediate Reinforcement: 

Programmed instruction involves giving immediate reinforcement to the learners. When learners response to the frames, they do not know that these responses are correct or wrong. By providing immediate reinforcement or confirmation to the response, the learner gets confidence. When the learner is reinforced for a correct response, he/she becomes repetitive for further learning. The learner learns best if his/her response is confirmed immediately. The confirmation provides reinforcement to the learner.

Principle of Self-Pacing: 

Programmed instruction rests on the principle of self-pacing. It recognizes the individual differences of the learners. This principle is based on the assumption that each learner can work each step as slowly or as quickly, depending upon his/her pace. Each learner is free to move according to his/her own speed, slowly or quickly as they like. Some can learn things at a quicker speed and may skip one or more frames, whereas others can go on slowly. It satisfies every learner’s need.

Principles of Continuous Evaluation:

The programmed instruction is based on continuous evaluation by recording the response of the learner. The learner leaves the record of his/her study for each step in response sheet. It helps to improve the quality of programmed material through checking the number of errors at each step. Also, the learner’s progress can be evaluated by looking into the various types of response produced by the learner.